With all of this news lately about Domino not-so-gluten-free pizza, we thought that this would be a good time to remind people what Celiac disease and Gluten intolerance is and is not.
What Is Celiac Disease?
Celiac disease is a hereditary allergy to gluten that results in damage to the small intestine. Common symptoms include loose stools, fatigue, weight loss and generally poor health. However, symptoms can vary widely and include constipation, weight gain, and a skin condition called dermatitis herpetiformis.
What Is Gluten?
Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten is responsible for the springiness and stretchiness of bread. Without it, bread turns out heavy and dense.
How Is Celiac Disease Diagnosed?
Celiac disease can be assessed by blood tests or by a biopsy of the small intestine performed during an upper endoscopy. The blood tests include the tissue transglutaminase antibody test and the newer deamidated gliadin antibody test. The endomysial antibody test is older and is not as senstive as the newer tests.
How Common Is Celiac Disease?
The occurrence of celiac disease is much higher than previously thought. A recent study put the prevalence at 1 in every 133 people, making it one the most common genetic diseases known. Once diagnosed, 1 in 22 first degree relatives, and 1 in 39 second degree relatives, is also diagnosed positive.
How Is Celiac Disease Different from a Gluten Intolerance?
Although celiac disease is a gluten allergy, it is only one form of gluten allergy. Many react to gluten and may have elevated serum antigliadin antibodies, but they do not have damage to the small intestine. These people have a negative biopsy of the small intestine, as well as negative antiendomysial antibody and tissue transglutaminase tests. How Common Are Gluten Allergies? Although no studies have been done on the prevalence of gluten intolerance, the prevalence of gluten allergies is certainly higher than that of celiac disease alone.
What Is the Treatment for Celiac Disease and Gluten Intolerance?
The treatment is identical for both celiac disease and gluten intolerance and involves removing all sources of gluten from the diet. This means that a person with a gluten allergy should not eat bread products, pastas, or processed food of any kind that contains wheat, rye, or barley in any form. Individuals require special dietary counseling. Fortunately, many alternative sources for gluten free breads, pastas and other foods now exist and are easier than ever to find.
Image thanks to mambosprouts.com